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John Quincy Adams - 6tht President of the United States


John Quincy Adams image is from the US National Archives.
John Quincy Adams (National Archives)


John Quincy Adams was the 6th (1825-1829) President of the United States, and the first President whose father was also President. He was the son of President John Adams.

John Quincy Adams was born in Braintree, Massachusetts on July 11, 1767. He acquired his early education in Europe at the University of Leyden, and was graduated from Harvard University in 1787. He studied law, then was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Boston, Massachusetts. He was appointed Minister to the Netherlands in 1794, Minister to Portugal in 1796 and Minister to Prussia in 1797. He was elected to the Massachusetts State Senate in 1802, and was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the U.S. House of Representatives in the same year. He was elected as a Federalist to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1803, until June 8, 1808, when he resigned, a successor having been elected six months early after Adams broke with the Federalist party. He was Minister to Russia from 1809 to 1814, a member of the commission which negotiated the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, and Minister to England from 1815 to 1817. He was Secretary of State in the Cabinet of President James Monroe from 1817 to 1825. The decision in the 1824 election of the President of the United States fell, according to the Constitution of the United States, upon the House of Representatives, as none of the candidates had secured a majority of the electors chosen by the States, and Adams, who stood second to Andrew Jackson in the electoral vote, was chosen and served from March 4, 1825, to March 3, 1829.

Adams was elected as a Republican to the U.S. House of Representatives for the Twenty-second and to the eight succeeding Congresses, becoming a Whig in 1834. He served from March 4, 1831, until his death. He was chairman of the Committee on Manufactures (Twenty-second through Twenty-sixth, and Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Congresses), the Committee on Indian Affairs (Twenty-seventh Congress) and the Committee on Foreign Affairs (Twenty-seventh Congress).

He was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor of Massachusetts in 1834. Adams died in the Capitol Building, Washington, D.C., on February 23, 1848. His interment was in the family burial ground at Quincy, Massachusetts and subsequently reinterred in the United First Parish Church.

 

 
Photographs and Illustrations of President John Quincy Adams



John Quincy Adams Photograph (National Archives)
Photograph of John Quincy Adams (National Archives)





Tally of the 1824 Electoral College Vote, 02/09/1825 (National Archives)
Tally of the 1824 Electoral College Vote,
02/09/1825 (National Archives)
This tally sheet documents the last presidential election in which no candidate won a majority of the electoral vote, throwing the election into the House of Representatives. John Quincy Adams won the presidency over Andrew Jackson.






Portrait of John Quincy Adams (National Archives)
Portrait of John Quincy Adams (National Archives)





Message of President John Quincy Adams nominating his cabinet and others, including Henry Clay to be Secretary of State, 03/05/1825 (National Archives)
Message of President John Quincy Adams nominating his cabinet and others, including Henry Clay to be Secretary of State, 03/05/1825 (National Archives)





Motion offered by John Quincy Adams to amend the House Journal to include his statement that the recently passed “gag rule” was in direct violation of the constitution, the rules of the house of representatives, and the rights of his constituents., 05/27/1836 (National Archives)
Motion offered by John Quincy Adams to amend the House Journal to include his statement that the recently passed “gag rule” was in direct violation of the constitution, the rules of the house of representatives, and the rights of his constituents.,
05/27/1836 (National Archives)
The “gag rule” resolution that Adams is protesting stated that “All petitions, memorials, resolutions, propositions, or papers, relating in any way, or to any extent whatsoever, to the subject of slavery, shall, without being either printed or referred, be laid upon the table, and that on further action whatever shall be had thereon.”






John Quincy Adams' Request for Papers Relating to the Lower Court Trials of the Amistad Africans [Petition for Certioriari], 1841 (National Archives)
John Quincy Adams' Request for Papers Relating to the Lower Court Trials of the Amistad Africans [Petition for Certioriari],
1841 (National Archives)
In the trial before the Supreme Court, the Africans were represented by John Quincy Adams, a former U.S. President and descendant of American revolutionaries. Preparing for his appearance before the Court, Adams requested papers from the lower courts one month before the proceedings opened. For 8 1/2 hours, the 73-year-old Adams passionately and eloquently defended the Africans' right to freedom on both legal and moral grounds, referring to treaties prohibiting the slave trade and to the Declaration of Independence.


 
Quick Facts about President John Quincy Adams

Rank: 6th (1825-1829)
Followed: James Monroe
Succeeded by: Andrew Jackson
Date of Birth July 11, 1767
Place of Birth: Quincy, Massachusetts
Date of Death: February 23, 1848
Place of Death: Washington, D.C.
First Lady: Louisa Catherine Johnson
Occupation: lawyer
Political Party: Democratic-Republican
Vice President: John C. Calhoun

 
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