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American Civil War
Famous People and Issues





Famous People and Issues
in the American Civil War


Famous People, Battles and Events - Table of Contents
List of Civil War Events, People and Battles



 
Which people, events or battles are we missing? Please send us any suggestions or corrections! You may include a full description for possible inclusion if you wish.



  • Abolitionism The term Abolitionism refers to a movement in several nations of the 19th century which sought to abolish slavery and the slave trade.

    In Great Britain, abolitionists succeed in abolishing slavery throughout the empire in 1833 and in allowing the Royal Navy to enforce a ban on the slave trade.

    In the United States, abolitionists were involved in the conflict between North and South (see American Civil War). While the Quakers were particularly noted for activity in this movement, it was by no means limited to Quaker participation. This issue was one of several key issues that led to the creation of the Free Methodist denomination, a group which split from the Methodist Episcopal Church in the 1860s.

    Many Abolitionists took an active (and often illegal, by the laws of the time) role putting their principles into practice, by supporting the Underground Railroad.

    After the Emancipation Proclamation the Abolitionists continued to pursue the freedom of slaves in the remaining slave states, and to better the conditions of black Americans generally. From these principles the US civil rights movement was to eventually take form.

    Notable Abolitionists

    Historians working in areas connected with "abolitionism"
    • Eric Williams


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  • Amendment Thirteen to the United States Constitution

    Amendment XIII (the Thirteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution states:

    Section 1.
    Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

    Section 2.
    Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

    Interpretation and history
    This amendment was responsible for the abolition of slavery.

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  • Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the United States Civil War in the eastern theater.

    At the Battle of Antietam (September 17, 1862) it was led by General Robert E. Lee. The right wing was under the command of of Major General James Longstreet and the the left wing under Major General Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall Jackson). The Cavalry was led by Major General James Ewell Brown Stuart and the Reserve Artillery by Brigadier General W. N. Pendleton.

    The Army fought in a number of battles, including:

    Of note is "Robert E. Lee's Farewell to the Army of Northern Virginia"

    "After four years of arduous service, marked by unsurpassed courage and fortitude, the Army of Northern Virginia has been compelled to yield to overwhelming numbers and resources.

    I need not tell the survivors of so many hard-fought battles who have remained steadfast to the last that I have consented to this result from no distrust of them; but feeling that valor and devotion could accomplish nothing that could compensate for the loss that would have attended the continuance of the contest, I determined to avoid the useless sacrifice of those whose past services have endeared them to their countrymen. By the terms of the agreement, officers and men can return to their homes and remain until exchanged.

    You may take with you the satisfaction that proceeds from the consciousness of duty faithfully performed, and I earnestly pray that a merciful God will extend to you his blessing and protection.

    With an unceasing admiration of your constancy and devotion to your country, and a grateful remembrance of your kind and generous consideration of myself, I bid you all an affectionate farewell."

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  • John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 - April 26, 1865) was the assassin of Abraham Lincoln. A professional and extremely popular stage actor of his day, Booth was a Confederate sympathizer who was dissatisfied by the outcome of the American Civil War.

    John Wilkes Booth was born on May 10, 1838, on a farm near Bel Air, Maryland. His parents, Junius Booth and Mary Ann Holmes, were British and had moved to the United States in 1821. Junius was one of the most famous actors on the American stage. When he died in 1858 the poet Walt Whitman wrote, "There went the greatest and by far the most noble Roman of them all."

    J. Wilkes Booth (as he was known professionally) made his stage debut at the age of 17 (in August 1855) when he played the Earl of Richmond in Shakespeare's Richard III. In 1858 he became a member of the Richmond Theatre, and his career started to take off. He was referred to in reviews as "the handsomest man in America." He stood 5 feet 8 inches tall, had jet black hair, and was lean and athletic.

    In 1859 Booth was present at the execution of John Brown, the abolitionist who had tried to start a slave uprising at Harpers Ferry. Booth had joined a militia (the Richmond Greys) just to attend the event and stood near the scaffold with other armed men to guard against any rescue attempt.

    In early 1862 Booth was arrested and taken before a provost marshall in St. Louis for making anti-government remarks.

    On November 9, 1863, President Lincoln saw Booth playing Raphael in The Marble Heart at Ford's Theatre (Lincoln sat in the exact same box in which he was later assassinated). Other than that run Booth made only one other acting appearance at Ford's theater. That occurred on March 18, 1865, when he played Duke Pescara in The Apostate in what was the last appearance of his career.

    Booth actually attended Lincoln's second inauguration on March 4 1865 as the invited guest of his secret fiance Lucy Hale (Lucy's father John Hale was Lincoln's minister to Spain).

    On Good Friday, April 14, 1865, shortly after Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox, President Lincoln was attending the play "Our American Cousin" at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C.. Booth managed to sneak into Lincoln's booth and shot him in the back of the head with a .44 caliber Derringer pistol.

    Booth then leapt to the stage, breaking his leg in the process, and fled to the home of Dr. Samuel Mudd, who treated the broken leg. Booth was pursued by Union soldiers, and was killed by Sergeant Boston Corbett while trying to elude capture.

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  • Slave narrative - In the later years that slavery existed as an institution in the United States, and for some years after its abolution, some freed slaves published accounts of their experiences.

    These accounts were heavily used by the slavery abolitionism movement:
    • William Wells Brown
    • Frederick Douglass
    • John Andrew Jackson
    • Twelve years a slave (1853) by Solomon Northup (a free-born black kidnapped into slavery)
    • Booker T. Washington
    • Harriet Jacobs-Narrative of the Life of a Slave Girl
    • The Interesting Narrative and the life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustavus Vassa, the African, 1789
    • Narrative of Moses Roper's Adventures and Escape from American Slavery, 1837
    • The narrative of William Wells Brown, 1847


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  • John Brown (1800-1859) was an abolitionist who lead the raid on Harpers Ferry shortly before the start of the American Civil War.

    John Brown was born in Torrington, Connecticut on May 9 1800. His father Owen Brown, a strict Calvinist who hated slavery, was a tanner and taught the trade to his son.

    On June 21 1820 Brown married Dianthe Lusk. In 1826 they moved to Pennsylvania, where Brown built a tannery. Dianthe died in 1832, shortly after giving birth. On June 14 1833 Brown married sixteen-year-old Mary Day. She eventually bore thirteen children with Brown, in addition to caring for the five children from his previous marriage.

    In 1836 Brown moved his family to Franklin Mills, Ohio, and borrowed money to buy land in the area. He suffered great financial losses in the economic panic of 1837 and was declared bankrupt by a federal court on September 28, 1842.

    Starts Active Role as Abolitionist

    In 1847, in Springfield Massachusetts, Brown first met Frederick Douglass. Douglass wrote about Brown, "though a white gentleman, he is in sympathy a black man, and as deeply interested in our cause, as though his own soul had been pierced with the iron of slavery." At this meeting Brown first outlined to Douglass his plan to lead a war to free slaves.

    Brown moved to the black community of North Elba, New York, in 1849. The community was founded when Gerrit Smith, a wealthy abolitionist, donated 120,000 acres of his property in the Adirondacks to black families who were willing to clear and farm the land. As many of the new farmers were unfamiliar with the farming way of life, Brown established his own home there and taught his neighbors how to farm the rocky soil. It was very unusual at this time for a white man (even an abolitionist) to associate and socialise with blacks in this way.

    Move to Kansas

    In June of 1855 Brown moved to Kansas where some of his sons had settled. The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 meant that the residents of the territories would soon vote on whether or not to allow slavery. Proslavery forces were terrorizing the region, using threats and violence to influence elections in an attempt to make Kansas a slave state.

    On May 24 1856, in retribution for a pro-slavery attack on the town of Lawrence, Brown led a party that murdered five proslavery settlers in Pottawatomie Creek. Brown later said that he had not participated in the killings but that he did approve of them.

    John Brown's struggle with proslavery forces in Kansas brought him national attention and to many Northern abolitionists he became a hero. His defense of the free-soil town of Osawattomie earned him the nickname "Osawatomie Brown," and a play by that name soon appeared on Broadway telling his story.

    Brown spent the next 2 years travelling New England raising funds. Franklin Sanborn, secretary for the Massachusetts State Kansas Committee, introduced Brown to several influential abolitionists in the Boston area in January of 1857. This group was later called the "Secret Six." They funded Brown allowing him to raise a small army.

    In January of 1858, Brown and his men rode into Missouri and attacked two homesteads. After liberating eleven slaves he travelled for 82 days to deliver the slaves to freedom in Canada.

    Raid on Harpers Ferry

    On October 16 1859, Brown leads 21 men in an attack on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. The arsenal was a large complex of buildings that contained 100,000 muskets and rifles. He planned to seize the weapons and arm local slaves. They would then head south and a general revolution would result. The 21 raiders included a fugitive slave, a college student, and several free blacks. Three of the men were Brown's sons.

    The raid initially went well. They cut the telegraph wires and easily captured the armory which was being defended by a single watchman. They also gathered hostages, including Col. Lewis Washington, great-grand-nephew of George Washington.

    Things started to go wrong when an eastbound Baltimore & Ohio train approached the town. The train's baggage master tried to warn the passengers. Brown's men yelled for him to halt, then opened fire. The baggage master, Hayward Shepherd, became the first casualty of John Brown's war against slavery. Ironically Shepherd was a free black man. For some reason, after shooting Shepherd, Brown allowed the train to continue on it's way. News of the raid reached Washington DC by late morning.

    In the meantime, local farmers, shopkeepers and militiamen firing from the heights behind the town pinned down the raiders in the armory. At noon, a company of militamen seized the bridge blocking the only escape route.

    The remaining raiders took cover in the engine house, a small brick building near the armory. By morning the building was surrounded by a company of U.S. Marines under the command of Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee.

    A young lieutenant, J.E.B. Stuart, approached under a white flag and told the raiders that if they surrendered their lives would be spared. Brown refused and the Marines stormed the building. Brown was beaten unconscious after his belt buckle deflected a bayonet thrust. Twelve of the raiders were killed as was one of the Marines.

    On November 2, after a week long trial and 45 minutes of deliberation, a Charlestown Virginia jury found John Brown guilty of murder, treason, and inciting a slave insurrection.

    He was hanged on December 2 1859.

    After the Civil War, Frederick Douglass wrote: "Did John Brown fail? John Brown began the war that ended American slavery and made this a free Republic. His zeal in the cause of my race was far greater than mine. I could live for the slave, but he could die for him.."

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  • George Washington Carver (1860s - January 5, 1943) was an American botanist who introduced crop rotation to southern U.S. agriculture and developed hundreds of uses for the peanut and other plants.

    Carver was born into slavery in the early 1860s, near Diamond Grove Missouri. His owner was a German immigrant named Moses Carver, who also owned his mother and brother. His father died in an accident when he was very young. When George was an infant, he and his mother were kidnapped by thieves who hoped to sell him elsewhere. He was returned to the farm, reputedly in exchange for a racehorse. His mother was lost. This episode caused a bout of respiratory disease that left him with a permanently weakened constitution. Because of this, he was unable to work as a field hand and spent his time working in the garden. He became so knowledgeable as a child that he was known in his neighborhood as "the plant doctor".

    When freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, his name changed from Carver's George to George Carver. He worked on his former master's farm and taught himself to read and write before going on to earn a high-school diploma at Minneapolis High School in Kansas. He was accepted to Simpson College in 1887, and then transferred to Iowa State University (then Iowa State Agricultural College) where he earned bachelor's (1891) and master's (1894) degrees. He used the name George W. Carver in his correspondence, and when requested to provide a middle name chose Washington.

    While in college, he showed a strong aptitude for singing and art, as well as for science, and could possibly have chosen a career in any of the three fields.

    In 1896 Carver came to the Tuskegee Institute (now Tuskegee University) at the request of Booker T. Washington and specialized in botany. He became director of agricultural research.

    Taking an interest in the plight of poor Southern farmers working with soil depleted by repeated crops of cotton. Carver advocated employing the nitrogen cycle by alternating cotton crops with legume planting, such as peanuts,to restore nitrogen to the soil. Thus, the cotton crop was improved and a new cash crops added. He developed an agricultural extension system in Alabama to train farmers in raising these crops and an industrial research laboratory to develop uses for them.

    In order to make these new crops profitable, Carver devised numerous new uses for the new crops, including more than 300 uses for the peanut ranging from glue to printer's ink. He made similar investigations into uses for plants such as sweet potatoes and pecans.

    He often said that if all other foods were gone from the earth, the peanut and sweet potato alone could provide sufficient food, in both nutrition and in variety of preparation, to sustain humans indefinitely.

    George Washington Carver died January 5, 1943. As a legacy, he left behind the Carver Resarch Foundation at Tuskegee, founded in 1940 with his life's savings.

    Carver Hall, at Iowa State University, is named after him. He appeared on US commemorative stamps in 1947 and 1998 and was depicted on a commemorative half-dollar in 1951.

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  • Confederate States of America The Confederate States of America (CSA) was the government formed by the southern states that seceded from the United States during the period of the American Civil War. Its constitution was very similar to that of the United States (or the "Union"), although it reflected a stronger philosophy of states' rights, and it also contained an explicit protection of the institution of slavery.

    Unlike the US president, the president of the Confederacy was to be elected to a six-year term and could not be relected. The only president was Jefferson Davis; the Confederacy was defeated by Union forces before he could finish out his term. Although the preamble refers to "each State acting in its sovereign and independent character", it also refers to the formation of a "permanent federal government," thus seeming to deny to the Southern states the very right to secession that they claimed for themselves when they left the United States. Also, although slavery was enshrined in the constitution (ironically, this was placed in its "Bill of Rights"), it also prohibited the importation of new slaves from outside the Confederacy.

    The Confederacy was never recognized by any foreign government.

    The capital of the Confederacy was Montgomery, Alabama, from 4 February 1861 until 29 May 1861, when it was moved to Richmond, Virginia, where it remained until the end of the war.

    The official flag of the Confederacy, and the one actually called the "Stars and Bars," was sometimes hard to distinguish from the Union flag under battle conditions, so the Confederate battle flag, the "Southern Cross," became the one more commonly used and, therefore, the one most people associate with the Confederacy today. (It is often called the "Stars and Bars," too, but should not be.) The Stars and Bars had seven stars, for the seven states that had seceded from the Union by the time it was adopted; the Southern Cross had thirteen stars, for the eleven states that did secede and for the two that were admitted to the Confederacy but that had either declared neutrality or been prevented from seceding by Union occupation, so they had representatives in both governments: Kentucky and Missouri. Timeline of Important Dates
    • December 20, 1860 - South Carolina secedes from the Union.
    • February, 1861 - A constitutional convention prepares a provisional constitution and chooses members of a provisional government.
    • March 11, 1861 - A permanent constitution is ratified.
    • February 18, 1862 - A permanent legislature is established.
    • April 9, 1865 - Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, thereby effectively putting an end to the Confederacy.

    States that Seceded
    • South Carolina (December 20, 1860)
    • Mississippi (January 9, 1861)
    • Florida (January 10,1861)
    • Alabama (January 11, 1861)
    • Georgia (January 19, 1861)
    • Louisiana (January 26, 1861)
    • Texas (February 1, 1861)
    • Virginia (April 17, 1861),
    • Arkansas (May 6, 1861),
    • Tennessee (May 7, 1861),
    • North Carolina (May 21, 1861).


    <-- Return to the Table of Contents



  • Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808 - December 6, 1889) was President of the Confederate States of America during the United States' Civil War.

    Timeline of Jefferson Davis

    1808
    June 3. Born on his father's farm in Todd (formerly Christian) County, Kentucky, the tenth and youngest child of Samuel and Jane Davis.

    1811
    Moves with the family to Saint Mary Parish, Louisiana.

    1812
    Moves with the family to a farm near Woodville, Wilkinson County, Mississippi Territory.

    1813
    Commences attending school, with his sister Mary, in a log-cabin school house, one mile from home.

    1815
    Enters the Catholic school of Saint Thomas Aquinas in Washington County, Kentucky.

    1818
    Enters Jefferson College at Washington, Adams County, Mississippi.

    1821
    October 1. Enters Transylvania University at Lexington, Kentucky.

    1824
    March 11. Appointed a cadet at West Point. June 18. Delivers an address on "Friendship" at the junior exhibition, Transylvania University. September 24. Enters West Point.

    1828
    July 1. Graduated from West Point and commissioned 2nd Lieutenant of the 1st Infantry. Stationed at Fort Crawford.

    1829
    Detailed to supervise the cutting of timber on the banks of the Red River for the repair and enlargement of Fort Crawford. Stationed at Fort Winnebago.

    1831
    Supervises the building and management of a saw mill on the Yellow River, contracts pneumonia and returns to Fort Crawford.

    1832
    In command of a detachment at Galena, Illinois, to remove miners from lands the occupation of which was protested by the Indians; serves in the Black Hawk War and escorts Black Hawk to prison in Jefferson Barracks.

    1833
    March 4. Promoted to the rank of 1st Lieutenant of the 1st Dragoons. August 30. Is made a regimental adjutant.

    1834
    Stationed at Fort Gibson.

    1835
    June 17. Marries Miss Knox Taylor, daughter of Colonel Zachary Taylor. June 30. Resigns his commission. September 15. His wife dies of malarial fever at the home of his sister, Mrs. Luther Smith, Bayou Sara, Louisiana. Recovering from malarial fever, Davis sails for Havana and from there sails to New York.

    1836
    Becomes a cotton planter and a student of political science on Briarfield plantation, Warren County, Mississippi.

    1843
    Enters political life as a Democratic candidate for a seat in the Mississippi House of Representatives and engages, on election day, with Seargent S. Prentiss in a public debate on the issues of the day.

    1844
    Canvasses Mississppi campaigning for the Polk and Dallas presidential ticket.

    1845

    February 26. Marries Varina Howell.
    Elected a member of the national House of Representatives.
    December 8. Takes his seat in the House.
    December 19. Speaks in the House, his first speech in that body, on naturalization laws. Offers resolutions with regard to military schools and a mail route from Mobile, Alabama, to Jackson, Mississippi.

    1846
    January 13. Offers a resolution in the House requesting information from the Secretary of the Navy with regard to the Ship Island channel.
    February 6. Speaks in the House regarding the ownership of the Oregon territory.
    March 16. Delivers a strict-constructionist speech on the river and harbor bill.
    March 27. Speaks on the bill to raise two regiments of riflemen.
    April 8. Speaks on the bill to raise a regiment of mounted riflemen.
    May 28. Speaks on the House resolution of thanks to General Taylor.
    May 30. Speaks on the bill to alter the pay department of the Army.
    June 12. Offers resolutions that medals be awarded in recognition of services rendered by General Taylor and his army at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.
    June. Resigns his seat in the House.
    July 18. Elected colonel of the first regiment of Mississippi riflemen in the war with Mexico.
    July 21. Sails with the regiment from New Orleans for southeastern Texas. September 21-23. Participates in the siege of Monterey, Mexico.

    1847

    February 22. Wounded while fighting at Buena Vista.
    June 20. Declines an appointment as brigadier general of volunteers on the grounds that volunteers are militia, and that the Constitution reserves to the State the appointment of all militia officers.
    July 12. Mustered out.
    August 10. Appointed to fill a vacancy in the U. S. Senate.
    December 6. Takes his seat in the Senate.
    December 30. Appointed a regent of the Smithsonian Institution.

    1848

    January 3. Speaks on a bill to increase the size of the Army.
    February 17. Speaks on the resolution of thanks to General Taylor. May 5. Speaks on the bill providing for a temporary occupation of Yucatan by the United States.
    July 1. Speaks in defense of the reputation of General John A. Quitman.
    July 12. Speaks on the bill to establish a territorial government for Oregon.

    1849
    January 12. Speaks on a petition for the African colonization of free blacks.
    January 22. Speaks on resolution by the Legislature of New York with regard to the slavery question.
    January 31. Speaks on the bill to aid the construction of a railroad across the Isthmus of Panama.
    March 3. Speaks on the bill for the establishment of the Department of the Interior.
    December 18. Made chairman of the Senate Committee on Military Affairs.
    December 20. Opposes a resolution inviting Father Mathew to a seat in the Senate on the ground of his being an abolitionist.

    1850
    January 10. Speaks on the resolutions of the General Assembly of the State of Vermont with regard to slavery.
    February. Elected to the Senate for a term of six years.
    February 8. Speaks on the question of receiving a petition for the dissolution of the Union.
    February 12. Speaks on the subject of the extension of slavery to the Territories.
    March 18. Speaks in defense of Buchanan's position on the slavery question.
    May 1. Delivers a strict constructionist speech on the joint resolution providing aid to search for Sir John Franklin.
    May 2. Objects, in a speech, to the granting of public lands to corporations.
    May 8. Presents "the report and resolutions of the Legislature of Mississippi, on the subject which distracts and divides the people of the Union, and which threatens, unless checked in its onward course, to produce consequences fatal to the cause of human liberty, as secured and advanced by the Constitution of the United States."
    June 13. Speaks on the bill to grant to Arkansas the swamp lands in that State.
    September 28. Speaks on a proposition to abolish flogging in the Navy.
    January-September. Speaks many times on Clay's compromise measures with regard to slavery.

    1851
    January 22. Speaks on Clay's resolution of inquiry into the expediency of making more effectual provision for the suppression of the African slave trade.
    February 18. Speaks on Clay's resolution with regard to resistance, in Boston, to the execution of the fugitive slave law.
    September. Resigns seat in the Senate to succeed Pitman as Democratic candidate for governor of Mississippi.
    November. Defeated by Henry S. Foote in the Mississippi gubernatorial election.

    1852
    January. Takes part in the states rights convention at Jackson, Mississippi.
    September-October. Speaks in Mississippi and neighboring States for the Pierce ticket.

    1853
    March 7. Becomes Secretary of War.
    July. Speaks in Philadelphia on the Administration's policy with regard to internal improvements, and visits New England.
    December 1. Transmits to Congress his first report as Secretary of War.

    1854
    January 22. Conducts Stephen A. Douglas and some other prominent southerners to the White House for an interview with the President on the Kansas-Nebraska Bill.
    December 4. Transmits to Congress his second annual report as Secretary of War.

    1855
    February 27. Transmits to Congress his elaborate report on the several possible routes for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.
    December 8. Transmits to Congress his third annual report as Secretary of War.

    1856
    December 1. Transmits to Congress his fourth annual report as Secretary of War.

    1857
    March 4. Re-enters the Senate.

    1857
    Disabled from service in the Senate and threatened with the loss of his left eye.

    1858
    Spends the summer in Portland, Maine, on account of ill health.
    July 4. Delivers a speech onboard a ship off Boston in which he pleads for the preservation of the Union.
    October 19. Delivers a speech in Faneuil Hall in which he urges devotion to the Union and obedience to the Constitution.
    December. Speaks in the Senate on his proposed substitute for the Pacific Railroad Bill.

    1859
    January. Speaks several times on the French Spoliation Bill.
    February 1. Speaks on the agricultural colleges bill.
    February 28. Speaks on questions connected with slavery in the Territories.
    December 5. Speaks on a resolution of inquiry into John Brown's raid at Harper's Ferry.

    1860
    February 2. Submits six resolutions defining his position with regard to the relations of States.
    February 29. Speaks on the bill for the admission of Kansas into the Union.
    May 8. Speaks on his resolutions with regard to the relations of the States.

    1861
    January 10. Upholds the right of secession.
    January 21. Announces that his State has declared her separation from the United States, delivers a farewell address, and withdraws from the Senate.
    January 25. Commissioned major general of Mississippi troops.
    February 9. Elected Provisional President of the Confederate States of America by the Confederate convention at Montgomery.
    February 18. Inaugurated Provisional President of the Confederate States of America. Appoints Peace Commission to settle differences with the United States without war.
    March 3. Appoints General P.G.T. Beauregard to the command of the Confederate forces in and around Charleston, South Carolina.
    May 29. Takes up his residence at Richmond, Virginia.
    October 16. Elected President of the Confederate States of America.

    1862
    February 22. Inaugurated President of the Confederate States of America.
    May 31. Assigns General Robert E. Lee to the command of the Army of Northern Virginia.
    December. Makes a tour of the West, reviewing the Confederate Armies.

    1863
    August 8. After Gettysburg General Lee, on account of adverse criticism, offers to resign his command. Davis declines.

    1864
    October-November. Visits Georgia to rally the people to the support of the Confederacy.

    1865
    January 12. Appoints commissioners to the conference at Hampton Roads.
    April 3. Leaves Richmond, Virginia, in company with the Confederate Cabinet, for Danville, Virginia.
    April 9. Proceeds to Greensboro, North Carolina.
    April 16. Proceeds from Greensboro toward Meridian, Mississippi.
    May 10. Taken prisoner at Irwinville, Georgia.
    May 19. Confined in the gun room of a casemate at Fortress Monroe.
    May 23. Manacled.
    May 26. His irons are removed at the suggestion of his physician.

    1866
    May. Indicted for treason.

    1867
    Admitted to bail, visits Canada and sails for New Orleans, Louisiana via Havana, Cuba.

    1868
    Visits Europe. December. Court divides on a motion to quash his indictment for treason.

    1869
    February. An order of nolle prosequi is entered in his case. Becomes president of the Carolina Life Insurance Company at Memphis, Tennessee.

    1870
    Presides over the Lee memorial meeting at Richmond.

    1875
    Urged to accept election to the United States Senate by the State of Mississippi but refuses.

    1876
    Promotes the Mississippi Society for the purpose of stimulating trade between the United States and South America.

    1877
    Visits England.

    1878
    Returns to Beauvoir, Mississippi to write The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government.

    1881
    Completes The Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government and visits Europe.

    1882
    Visits Alabama and Georgia.

    1884
    March 10. Delivers his last address to the Mississippi Legislature.

    1889
    October. Completes the manuscript of A Short History of the Confederate States of America.
    December 6. Dies in New Orleans, Louisiana.

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  • Frederick Douglass (1818-1895) American abolitionist.

    Frederick Douglass, born a slave around 1818 in Talbot County, MD. escaped slavery to become the most prominent African-American in the United States of his time, a leader of the anti-slavery movement in the United States as an influential lecturer, author, and publisher of a series of newspapers: the North Star, Frederick Douglass Weekly, Frederick Douglass' Paper, Douglass' Monthly, and the New National Era.

    His work spanned the years of prior to and during the Civil War. He knew John Brown but did not approve of Brown's plan to start an armed slave revolt. He conferred with President Abraham Lincoln on the treatment of black soldiers in 1863 and with President Andrew Johnson on the subject of black suffrage. His closest collaborators were white abolitionists William Lloyd Garrison and Wendell Phillips. Douglass most lasting work is his autobiography "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave," which was published in 1945. Critics frequently attacked the book as inauthentic, not believing that a black man could not possibly have written so eloquent a work. It was an immediate bestseller and received overwhelmingly positive critical reviews. Within three years of publication, it was reprinted 9 times with 11,000 copies circulating in the United States and translated into French and Dutch. The book's success, however, forced him to go to England to escape reenslavement. He was only able to return when two Englishwomen, Ellen and Anna Richardson, purchased his freedom from his former master, Hugh Auld, for 700 dollars.

    In later years, he served as President of the failed Reconstruction era Freedman's Savings Bank, marshal of the District of Columbia, minister-resident and consul-general to the Republic of Haiti and chargé d'affaires for Santo Domingo. In 1892 the Haitian government appointed him has its commissioner to the Chicago Columbian Exposition.

    He died of a heart attack in his adopted hometown, Washington D.C. on 20 February 1895.

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  • The Emancipation Proclamation was issued on January 1, 1863, during the second year of the American Civil War and was Abraham Lincoln's declaration that all slaves in the states which had seceded from the Union, and which were not at the time under Federal control, were considered free. This action had little immediate effect, since it was impossible for the Federal government to implement it in those regions where it actually applied--namely the states in rebellion that were not under Federal control. Slaves in the states which remained loyal to the Union were not affected, and remained in slavery until the ratification of the thirteenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1865. Thus the impact of the proclamation was more symbolic than real. William Seward, Lincoln's Secretary of State, commented on this by remarking, "We show our sympathy with slavery by emancipating slaves where we cannot reach them and holding them in bondage where we can set them free."

    However, Lincoln believed he had no constitutional authority to free the slaves except in those states where it was deemed a military necessity in order to suppress the rebellion, and freeing slaves was still a risky political act given that there were still slave states loyal to the union, and the initial war aims were centered on preserving the union rather than freeing slaves. As such, the proclamation was a military order issued by Lincoln in his capacity as Commander-in-Chief. The Emancipation Proclamation also allowed for the admittance of freed slaves into the (then-segregated) United States military, an unusual opportunity taken by nearly 200,000 black men, many of them former slaves.

    Lincoln first discussed the proclamation with his cabinet in July, 1862, but because of the political implications of this act (including the presence of slave states within the Union), he felt that he needed a Union victory in the Civil War before he could issue it. After the battle of Antietam, in which Union troops turned back a Confederate invasion of Maryland, he issued a preliminary proclamation in September, 1962. The final proclamation was then issued in January of the following year.

    Despite the lack of any immediate effect on the slaves, the proclamation nevertheless representing a shift in the attitudes of the North towards its war objectives, where merely reuniting the nation would no longer become the sole outcome. It represented the first step toward the ultimate abolition of slavery in the United States.

    Ulysses S. Grant
    Rank:18th (1869-1877)
    Followed:Andrew Johnson
    Succeeded by:Rutherford B. Hayes
    Date of BirthApril 27, 1822
    Place of Birth:Point Pleasant, Ohio
    Date of Death:July 23, 1885
    Place of Death:Mount McGregor, New York
    First Lady:Julia Boggs Dent
    Occupation:soldier
    Political Party:Republican
    Vice President:
    • Schuyler Colfax (1869-1873)
    • Henry Wilson (1873-1875)



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  • Ulysses S. Grant - Ulysses Simpson Grant (1822 - 1885) was an American Civil War General and 18th President of the United States.

    Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant) was born April 27, 1822 in Point Pleasant, Ohio (25 miles above Cincinnati on the Ohio River) to Jesse R. and Hannah Simpson Grant. His father and also his mother's father were born in Pennsylvania. His father was a tanner.

    At the age of 17, he received a cadetship to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York through his Congressman. The Congressman erroneously registered him as Ulysses S. Grant, and so he is still known. He graduated from West Point in 1843, No. 21 in a class of 39.

    He married Julia Boggs Dent (1826-1902) on August 22, 1843 and they had four children: Frederick Dent, Ulysses Simpson, Jr., Ellen Wrenshall, and Jesse Root.

    After service in the Mexican-American War he was promoted to captain in 1853. The following summer, on July 31, 1854, he resigned from the army. Seven years of civilian life following, in which he was a farmer, a real estate agent in St. Louis, and finally an assistant at his father and brother's leather business.

    On April 24, 1861, ten days after the fall of Fort Sumter, Captain Grant arrived in Springfield, Illinois with a company of men he had raised. The Governor however felt that a West Point man could be put to better use and appointed him Colonel of the Twenty-first Illinois Infantry (effective June 17, 1861). On August 7th he was appointed a Brigadier-General of volunteers.

    Following the Battle of Chattanooga, he was appointed Lieutenant-General on March 2, 1864, and on the 17th he assumed command of all of the armies of the United States.

    Grant was chosen as the Republican presidential candidate at the Republican National Convention in Chicago on May 20 1868 with no real opposition. On election day he won with a majority of 309,684 out of a total of 5,716,082 votes cast.

    He was the 18th (1869-1877) President of the United States and served two terms from March 4,1869 to March 3, 1877. After the end of his second term Grant spent two years travelling around the world.

    He died on July 23, 1885 in Mount McGregor, New York. His body lies in New York City, with that of his wife, in Grant's Tomb, the largest mausoleum in North America.

    Professed Religion: Methodist

    Military Career:

    Nicknames:

    The Hero of Appomattox "Unconditional Surrender" Grant

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  • Robert E. Lee - (January 19, 1807 - October 12, 1870) was born at Stratford, in Westmoreland County, Virginia, son of Revolutionary War hero Henry Lee ("Lighthorse Harry"). Lee is best remembered in his role of commanding general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War

    Lee entered West Point in 1825. When he graduated (second in his class of forty six) in 1829 he had not only attained the top academic record but was the first cadet to graduate the Academy without a single demerit. He was commissioned as second lieutenant in the engineers.

    Lee served for seventeen months at Fort Pulaski on Cockspur Island, Georgia. In 1831, he was transferred to Fort Monroe, Virginia, as assistant engineer. While he was stationed there, he married Mary Anna Randolph Custis, the great-granddaughter of Martha Washington. They lived in the Custis mansion, located on the banks of the Potomac River in Arlington, just across from Washington, D.C.. They eventually had three sons and four daughters.

    Lee served as an assistant in the chief engineer's office in Washington from 1834 to 1837, but spent the summer of 1835 helping to lay out the state line between Ohio and Michigan. In 1837, he got his first important command. As a first lieutenant of engineers, he supervised the engineering work for St. Louis harbour and for the upper Mississippi and Missouri rivers. His work there earned him a promotion to captain. In 1841, he was transferred to Fort Hamilton in New York harbour, where he took charge of building fortifications.

    Lee distinguished himself in the Mexican War 1846-1848. Initially he was sent as a supervisor of road construction but his skills as a cavalryman soon lead to a more direct involvement in the fighting.

    He was promoted to Major after distinguishing himself in the battle of Cerro Gordo, in April, 1847. He also fought at Contreras, Cherubusco and Chapultepec, and was wounded at the later. By the end of the war he had been promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel.

    After the Mexican War, he spent three years at Fort Carrol in Baltimore harbor then became the superintendent of West Point in 1852. During his three years at West Point, he improved the buildings, the courses, and spent a lot of time with the cadets.

    In 1855, Lee became Lieutenant-Colonel of the Second Cavalry and was sent to the Texas frontier. There he helped protect settlers from attacks by the Apache and the Comanche.

    These were not happy years for Lee as he did not like to be away from his family for long periods of time, especially as his wife was becoming increasingly ill. Lee came home to see her as often as he could.

    He happened to be in Washington at the time of John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia) in 1859, and was sent there to arrest Brown and to restore order. He did this very quickly and then returned to his regiment in Texas. When Texas seceded from the Union in 1861, Lee was called to Washington, DC to wait for further orders.

    On April 18, 1861, on the eve of the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln, through Secretary Francis Blair, offered him command of the United States (Union) Army. There was little doubt as to Lee's sentiments. He was opposed to secession and considered slavery evil. He had freed his own inherited slaves long before the war began. However his loyalty to his native Virginia led him to join the Confederacy. At the outbreak of war he became military adviser to Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy, whom he knew from West Point.

    On June 1, 1862 he received the command of the Army of Northern Virginia and later that year won the Seven Days Battles defending Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital, against General George B. McClellan's Union forces. In 1863 Lee won victories at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville, both in Virginia, and in 1864 at Cold Harbor, Virginia, but was besieged in Petersburg, Virginia, June 1864-April 1865. He surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant on April 9, 1865, at Appomattox Courthouse.

    Following the war Lee applied for but was never granted the official postwar amnesty. His wife's family home the Custis-Lee Mansion, where they had lived before the Civil War, had been confiscated by Union forces and now is part of Arlington National Cemetery.

    He served as president of Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) in Lexington, Virginia from October 2, 1865. He died there on October 12, 1870.

    In 1975 Lee's USA citizenship was restored posthumously by an act of the U.S. Congress.

    Abraham Lincoln
    Rank:16th (1861-1865)
    Followed:James Buchanan
    Succeeded by:Andrew Johnson
    Date of BirthFebruary 12, 1809
    Place of Birth:Larue County, Kentucky
    Date of Death:April 15, 1865
    Place of Death:Washington, D.C.
    First Lady:Mary Todd
    Occupation:lawyer
    Political Party:Republican
    Vice President: Hannibal Hamlin (1861-1865
    Andrew Johnson (1865)



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  • Abraham Lincoln was the 16th (1861-1865) President of the United States, and the first President from the Republican Party.

    Born on February 12, 1809, in Kentucky, he moved at a young age to the area near Springfield, Illinois. He served as a captain in the U.S. Army during the Black Hawk War. He later tried his hand at several business and political ventures which all proved unsuccessful. It is widely believed that Lincoln suffered from bouts of severe depression, a theory supported by Lincoln's own statements and reports of the young lawyer's spending days alone in bed. It is also suggested that Lincoln may have suffered from Marfan's Syndrome, a disease which results in an elongated figure and bone structure.

    Lincoln eventually married and raised a family with Mary Todd Lincoln, who had some psychological difficulties of her own and at times required almost constant attention. Mrs. Lincoln generally disliked politics, and her tenure as first lady was marked with some scandal as she spent lavishly to redecorate the White House and reportedly purchased an inordinate amount of hats, gloves, and other fashionable items of clothing.

    First elected to the Senate, Lincoln spent most of his time in Washington alone and made less than a spectacular impression on his fellow politicians. During his presidential election, it was Lincoln's well-known gift of oratory that brought public support to an otherwise unimpressive presidential candidate. Lincoln debated his opponent in a series of events that are well documented and which represented a national discussion on the issues that were about to split the nation in two. The Lincoln/Douglas debates marked Lincoln's coming of age as a public figure and catapulted him into the White House in the most dire of times.

    Shortly after his election, the South made it clear that secession was inevitable. The tension was so great that Lincoln was convinced to arrive in Washington with little fanfare, in effect sneaking into the city. The South ridiculed Lincoln for this seemingly cowardly act, but the efforts at security may have been prudent. At Lincoln's inauguration on March 4, 1861, the Turners formed Lincoln's bodyguard, and a sizable garrison of Union troops was always present in Washington, ready to protect the president and the capital from rebel invasion.

    During his presidency, Lincoln is credited with freeing the slaves with the Emancipation Proclamation, though this only freed the slaves in areas of the Confederacy not yet controlled by the Union. During the Civil War Lincoln held powers no previous president had wielded. He unconstitutionally suspended the writ of habeas corpus and frequently imprisoned Southern spies and sympathizers without trial.

    He showed tremendous leadership to the Union populace during the war as evidenced by the Gettysburg Address, a speech dedicating a cemetery of union soldiers from the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863. While most of the speakers at the event spoke at length, some for hours, Lincoln's few choice words resonated across the nation and across history, defying Linoln's own prediction that "The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here." While there is little documentation of the other speeches of the day, Lincoln's address - written on the back of an envelope on the train ride to Gettysburg - is regarded as one of the great speeches in history.

    The war was a source of constant frustration for the president, and it occupied nearly all of his time. After repeated frustrations with General George McClellan, Lincoln made a fateful decision to replace him with a radical and somewhat scandalous army commander: General Ulysses S. Grant would apply his military knowledge and leadership talents to bring about the close of the Civil War.

    When Richmond (the confederate capital) was at long last captured, Lincoln went there to make a public gesture of sitting behind Davis's desk in Davis's own chair, symbolicaly saying to the nation that the President of the United States, and the U.S. constitution, held authority over the entire land -- a real irony in light of his own earlier actions.

    The reconstruction of the Union weighed heavy on the President's mind. He was determined to take a course that would not permanently alienate the former Confederate states.

    Lincoln met frequently with Grant as the war ended. The two men planned matters of reconstruction, and it was evident to all that the two men held one another in high regard. During their last meeting, on April 14, 1865, Lincoln invited General Grant to a social engagement for that evening. Grant declined (his wife was not eager to spend time with Mary Todd Lincoln).

    Without the General and his wife, the Lincolns left to attend a play at Ford's theater. The play was Our American Cousin, a musical comedy. As Lincoln sat in the balcony, John Wilkes Booth, an actor and southern sympathizer from Virginia, aimed a single-shot, round-slug pistol at the President's head and fired. He shouted "Sic semper tyrannis!" (Latin: "Thus always to tyrants" and Virginia's state motto) and jumped from the balcony to the stage below, breaking his leg in the process.

    Booth managed to limp to his horse and escape, and the mortally wounded president was taken to a house across the street where he lay in a coma for some time before he quietly expired.

    Booth and several of his companions (some of whom were later shown to be innocent) were eventually captured and either hanged or imprisoned.

    Lincoln's body was carried by train in a grand funeral procession through several states. The nation mourned a man who, they realized in his absence, was the savior of the United States and protector and defender of what Lincoln himself called "the government of the people, by the people, and for the people."

    One of the most respected and beloved presidents, Lincoln has been memorialized in many city names, notably the capital of Nebraska, with the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., and on the penny. In polls among historians, Lincoln is sometimes rated as one of the great presidents in American history.

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  • Solomon Northup (1808 - ????) was a free-born African-American from New York state who was kidnapped in Washington, D.C. and sold into slavery. He was held as a slave in Louisiana for a dozen years but was finally rescued and returned to his home. He wrote an account of his experiences, Twelve Years a Slave (1853).

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  • George Meade - George Gordon Meade, (1815-1872) was a Major General for the United States during the American Civil War.

    Meade was born December 31, 1815, in Cadiz, Spain, the son of an American merchant. He graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1835. After a brief career as a civil engineer, he returned to the military as a topographical engineer and saw action in the Mexican-American War.

    Meade was appointed a Brigideer General at the start of the Civil War. Military historians regard his early strategies and actions well, but Meade was often held back by his more timid commanders George McClellan and Joseph Hooker. Meade replaced Hooker as commander of the Army of the Potomac 3 days before the Battle of Gettysburg where he succeeded in driving Robert E. Lee's army back into Virginia, but was criticized for not actively pursuing the Confederates during their retreat.

    When General Ulysses S. Grant was appointed commander of the Union forces he had Meade promoted to Major General. Meade served under Grant until Union victory. After the war Meade expressed bitterness towards the popular press, which he thought had tended to credit Grant for every Union success and to blame Meade for every Union setback.

    Meade died in Philadelphia on November 6, 1872.

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  • George McClellan (1801-1872) - George Brinton McClellan (December 3, 1826 - October 29, 1885) was a Major General during the American Civil War.

    In early 1862, McClellan took control of the Union Army of the Potomac. He was briefly given supreme command of all the Union armies by Abraham Lincoln, but was subsequently relieved of that post in favor of Maj. Gen. Henry Halleck.

    McClellan reached the gates of Richmond in the spring of 1862, but when Lee defeated him in the Seven Days Campaign, he was relieved of command of the Army of the Potomac. His successor, John Pope, was beaten spectacularly by Lee at Second Bull Run in August. Lincoln then restored McClellan, who won a bloody, almost Pyhrric victory at the Battle of Antietam near Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, 1862. Lee's army, checked at last, returned to Virginia.

    When McClellan failed to follow up on Antietam, he was replaced by Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside.

    McClellan would go on to run against Abraham Lincoln in the 1864 U.S. presidential election, losing to Lincoln in the general election.

    McClellan would later go on to become Governor of New Jersey from 1878-1881.

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  • William Henry Seward (1801-1872) was U.S. Secretary of State under Lincoln and Andrew Johnson and the one who bought Alaska.

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  • Slavery is a form of involuntary servitude in which one person is treated as the chattel property of another person, providing labor from birth (or capture) until death (or such time that their freedom is granted). In the 19th century, Britain and the United States abolished slavery (see abolition), although various forms of slavery exist to this day in less economically developed nations (see debt bondage).

    Slavery in Colonial America

    Slavery in the Americas during the 17th century was an institute that made no distinction as to the race of the slave or the free man. But by the 18th century, the overwhelming number of black slaves was such that white slavery was less visible. Slavery under European rule began with importation of white european slaves, was followed by the enslavement of local aborigines in the Caribbean, and eventually was primarily replaced with Africans imported through a large slave trade as the native populations declined through disease. Most slaves brought to the Americas ended up in the Caribbean or South America where tropical diseases took a larger toll on their population and required large numbers of replacements.

    Slavery in North America

    The first slaves brought to the English colonies on the continent were landed at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. Slavery in the United States ended irregularly. Slavery was legal in most of the 13 colonies, and was ended in many of the states later called "Free States" only after the turn of the 19th century. For instance, slavery was not abolished in New York state until 1827, and even then only absolutely abolished for those born before 1799. Those born between 1799 and the passage of the law were under conditional slavery.

    In 1806 the United States passed legislation that banned the importation of slaves, but not the internal slave trade, and the involvement in the international slave trade or the outfitting of ships for that trade by U.S. citizens. Though there were certainly violations of this law, slavery in America became more or less self-sustaining. Several slave rebellions took place during the 1700's and 1800's including the Nat Turner rebellion in 1831.

    The 1860s saw the end of slavery in America. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 was a symbolic gesture that ended slavery nowhere, but only proclaimed freedom for slaves within the Confederacy. Slaves within the United States remained enslaved until the final ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution in December of 1865, 8 months after the cessation of hostilities in the Civil War.

    International Abolitionist Movements

    The anti-slavery movement began in England in 1787. It had support from Quakers, Baptists, Methodists and reached out for support from the new industrial workers. The primary leader of the fight against slavery in Britain was William Wilberforce. After 1838, when slavery and slavery commuted to apprentiship was outlawed in England, the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society worked to outlaw slavery overseas and to pressure the government to help enforce the suppression of the slave trade by declaring slave traders pirates and pursuing them. This organization continues today as Anti-Slavery International.

    Slaves in the United States who escaped ownership would often make their way north to Canada via the Underground Railroad. The Underground Railroad was a grassroots organization, loosely and informally organized.

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  • Harriet Tubman (1820-1913) was born into slavery in Maryland. Born Araminta Ross, she later took the name Harriet after her mother. Around 1844 she married John Tubman, another slave. She endured years of inhumane treatment from her various owners, including an incident where an overseer hurled a two-pound weight in her direction, striking her in the head. As a result of the blow, she suffered intermittent "sleep spells" the rest of her life.

    On hearing that the slaves of the plantation were to be sold, she took her emancipation into her own hands, and escaped northward, leaving behind her husband. On her way she was assisted by sympathetic Quakers, members of the Abolitionist movement who were instrumental in maintaining the Underground Railroad. She herself was later to become famous as "Moses", one of the most successful guides of the Underground Railroad; she made many trips South to help other slaves escaped and, in her own words, "never lost a passenger." despite the combined bounty for her which totalled $40,000. During the American Civil War, in addition to working as a cook and a nurse, she served as a spy for the North, and again was never captured.

    Harriet Tubman continued as an activist for African-American and women's rights. With Sarah Bradford acting as her biographer and transcribing her stories, she was able to have the story of her life published in 1869 as "Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman". This was of considerable help to her sad financial state - she was not awarded a government pension for her military service until some 30 years after the fact. That same year she married Nelson Davis, another Civil War veteran.

    Eventually, she settled in the home for needy blacks that she herself had helped to found in Auburn, New York. She died there at the age of 93, to the last telling stories of her adventures.

    John Brown was to refer to her as "General Tubman" and called her "one of the bravest persons on this continent." Frederick Douglass said of her, "Excepting John Brown... I know of no one who has willingly encountered more perils and hardships to serve our enslaved people."

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  • The Underground Railroad was the name of a network of clandestine routes, often informal and impromptu, by which slaves were able to escape the United States and reach freedom either in states that protected fugitive slaves, or in Canada. The Underground Railroad consisted of secret safe houses and other facilities owned by anti-slavery sympathizers, and operated much like any other large-scale widespread resistance movement with independent cells that only knew of a few of their neighbours. Escaped slaves would pass from one way station to another, making their way north step by step. The most famous member of the Underground Railroad was Harriet Tubman.
  • United States of America - The United States of America (U.S.A.) (also referred to as the United States, U.S., or colloquially as America, the States), is a federal republic with a strong democratic tradition in North America. The US shares land borders with Canada in the north and Mexico in the south and shares a marine border with Russia in the west.

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  • U.S. presidential election, 1860

    President: Abraham Lincoln (Republican)
    Main Opponent: John C. Breckinridge (Democrat)
    Electoral Vote: Winner: 180 Main Opponent: 72 Total/Majority: 303/152
    Popular Vote: Winner: 1,866,452 Main Opponent: 847,953
    Votes for Others: John Bell (39), Stephen A. Douglas (12)
    Vice President: Hannibal Hamlin (180)
    V.P. Opponents: Joseph Lane (72), Edward Everett (39), Herschel V. Johnson (12)
    Source: U.S. Office of the Federal Register

    Republican Nomination

    At the 1860 Republican convention in Chicago, William H. Seward of New York, Salmon P. Chase of Ohio, and Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania were the leading contenders for the party's presidential nomination. However, Lincoln, through the political astuteness of his managers and his own shrewd politicking, received the nomination on May 16, 1860. Hannibal Hamlin of Maine was selected as his running mate.

    Party leaders declared that slavery could spread no farther. The party also promised a tariff for the protection of industry and pledged the enactment of a law granting free homesteads to settlers who would help in the opening of the West.

    Democratic Nomination

    The Democrats were not united. Southerners split from the party and nominated Vice President John C. Breckenridge of Kentucky for president. Stephen A. Douglas was the nominee of northern Democrats. Diehard Whigs from the border states, formed into the Constitutional Union Party, nominated John C. Bell of Tennessee.

    General Election

    Lincoln and Douglas competed in the North, and Breckenridge and Bell in the South. Lincoln won only 39 percent of the popular vote, but had a clear majority of 180 electoral votes, carrying all 18 free states. Bell won Tennessee, Kentucky and Virginia; Breckenridge took the other slave states except for Missouri, which was won by Douglas. Despite his poor electoral showing, Douglas trailed only Lincoln in the popular vote.

    Lincoln's election made South Carolina's secession from the Union a foregone conclusion. The state had long been waiting for an event that would unite the South against the antislavery forces. Once the election returns were certain, a special South Carolina convention declared "that the Union now subsisting between South Carolina and other states under the name of the "United States of America' is hereby dissolved." By February 1, 1861, six more Southern states had seceded. On February 7, the seven states adopted a provisional constitution for the Confederate States of America. The remaining southern states as yet remained in the Union.

    Less than a month later, on March 4, 1861, Abraham Lincoln was sworn in as president of the United States. In his inaugural address, he refused to recognize the secession, considering it "legally void." His speech closed with a plea for restoration of the bonds of union. But the South turned deaf ears, and on April 12, guns opened fire on the federal troops stationed at Fort Sumter in the Charleston, South Carolina, harbor. The United States Civil War had begun. More Americans would die in this conflict than in any other conflict before or since.

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  • Booker T. Washington - (Booker Talifero Washington, 1856-1915) was born into slavery in Virginia on 5 April 1856. After the United States Civil War when the Emancipation Proclamation was enforced, he worked with his mother Jane as a salt-packer in a West Virginia facility, and, when he could, attended school. At 16, he entered the Hampton Institute, a school intended to train black teachers.

    He later founded and served as president of Tuskeegee Institute, an academic and vocational school for blacks during Reconstruction. He was to become one of America's foremost educators of his time. He also recruited George Washington Carver to teach and conduct research at Tuskeegee Institute.

    Active in politics, he was routinely consulted by Congressmen and Presidents about the appointment of blacks to political positions. He worked and socialized with many white politicians and notables. He argued that self-reliance was the key to improved conditions for Blacks in the US. However, for his advice to blacks to "compromise" and accept segregation, other black activists of the time, such as W. E. B. DuBois, labeled him an "accomodator".

    His autobiography, Up from Slavery, was a bestseller. (Available online free at the Project Gutenberg)

    Writings

    Andrew Johnson
    Rank:17th (1865-1869)
    Followed:Abraham Lincoln
    Succeeded by:Ulysses S. Grant
    Date of BirthDecember 29, 1808
    Place of Birth:Raleigh, North Carolina
    Date of Death:July 31, 1875
    Place of Death:Carter's Station, Tennessee
    First Lady:Eliza McCardle
    Occupation:tailor
    Political Party:Democrat
    Vice President:none



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  • Andrew Johnson was the 17th President of the United States, serving 1865 - 1869. He became President when Abraham Lincoln was assassinated. Johnson presided over the reconstruction of the United States following the American Civil War.

    Johnson's conciliatory policies towards the defeated rebels and his vetoes of civil rights bills embroiled him in a bitter dispute with the radical faction of Congress, leading the House of Representatives to impeach him on March 3, 1868. He was subsequently acquitted by a single vote in the Senate.

    Johnson was a Representative and a Senator from Tennessee and a Vice President and 17th President of the United States. He was born in Raleigh, North Carolina on December 29, 1808. He was self-educated. At the age of 13 he was apprenticed to a tailor. He moved to Tennessee in 1826, where he continued his employment as a tailor. He served as an alderman in Greeneville, Tennessee from 1828 to 1830, and mayor of Greeneville from 1834 to 1838. He was a member of the State house of representatives from 1835 to 1837 and 1839 to 1841. He was elected to the State senate in 1841, and elected as a Democrat to the Twenty-eighth and to the four succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1843 to March 3, 1853. He was chairman of the Committee on Public Expenditures (Thirty-first and Thirty-second Congresses).

    Johnson did not seek renomination, having become a gubernatorial candidate. He was Governor of Tennessee from 1853 to 1857, and was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate and served from October 8, 1857 to March 4, 1862, when he resigned. He was chairman of the Committee to Audit and Control the Contingent Expense (Thirty-sixth Congress). Johnson was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln as Military Governor of Tennessee in 1862. He was elected Vice President of the United States on the Republican ticket headed by Abraham Lincoln in 1864 and was inaugurated March 4, 1865. He became President of the United States on April 15, 1865, upon the death of Abraham Lincoln.

    Wide differences arising between the President and the Congress, a resolution for his impeachment passed the House of Representatives February 24, 1868. Eleven articles were set out in the resolution and the trial before the Senate lasted three months, at the conclusion of which he was acquitted (May 26, 1868) by a vote of thirty-five for conviction to nineteen for acquittal, the necessary two-thirds vote for impeachment not having been obtained. He retired to his home in Tennessee upon the expiration of the presidential term on March 3, 1869.

    Johnson was an unsuccessful candidate for election to the United States Senate in 1869 and to the House of Representatives in 1872. He was elected as a Democrat to the United States Senate and served from March 4, 1875, until his death near Elizabethton, Carter County, Tennessee, July 31, 1875. Interment was in the Andrew Johnson National Cemetery, Greeneville, Greene County, Tennessee.

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  • George McClellan (December 3, 1826 - October 29, 1885) was a Major General during the American Civil War.

    In early 1862, McClellan took control of the Union Army of the Potomac. He was briefly given supreme command of all the Union armies by Abraham Lincoln, but was subsequently relieved of that post in favor of Maj. Gen. Henry Halleck.

    McClellan reached the gates of Richmond in the spring of 1862, but when Lee defeated him in the Seven Days Campaign, he was relieved of command of the Army of the Potomac. His successor, John Pope, was beaten spectacularly by Lee at Second Bull Run in August. Lincoln then restored McClellan, who won a bloody, almost Pyhrric victory at the Battle of Antietam near Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, 1862. Lee's army, checked at last, returned to Virginia.

    When McClellan failed to follow up on Antietam, he was replaced by Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside.

    McClellan would go on to run against Abraham Lincoln in the 1864 U.S. presidential election, losing to Lincoln in the general election.

    McClellan would later go on to become Governor of New Jersey from 1878-1881.

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  • Albert Sidney Johnson - General Albert Sidney Johnson (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a Kentucky native and in 1826 graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point, NY. As a US Army officer, he was assigned to posts in New York and Missouri. He served in the Black Hawk War in 1832. After resigning his US Army commission in 1834, he returned to Kentucky to care for his dying wife.

    He moved to Texas in July of 1836 and enlisted in The Republic of Texas Army. One month later he was appointed to the position of Adjutant General and in January of 1837, he became Senior Brigadier General in Command of the Republic Army. The Second President of the Republic of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, appointed him Secretary of War in December of 1838. In 1840, he returned to Kentucky and married Eliza Griffin in 1843. They settled in China Grove, TX on his large plantation and lived there until 1849. During the Mexican-American War, he commanded a company of Texas Volunteers. Later as a Colonel in the United States Army, he served on the Texas frontier and in the West. At the outbreak of the American Civil War, he resigned from the US Army and was appointed a General by President of the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis.

    He was killed at the Battle of Shiloh in 1862 and was buried in New Orleans, Louisiana. In 1866, a joint resolution of the Texas Legislature was passed to have his body reinterred to the state cemetery in Austin (the re-interment occurred in 1867). Four decades later, the state appointed Elisbet Ney to design a monument and sculpture of him to be erected at his gravesite.

    He is considered a Texas Patriot and a Confederate Hero.

    The Texas Historical Commission has erected a historical marker near the entrance of what was once his plantation. An adjacent marker was erected by the San Jacinto Chapter of the Daughters of The Republic of Texas and the Lee, Roberts, and Davis Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederate States of America.

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  • P.G.T. Beauregard - Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (1818-1893), best known as a General for the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor.

    Beauregard was born in New Orleans, Louisiana on May 28, 1818 to a white Creole family. Trained at West Point, he excelled both as an artillery man and military engineer. He served as a major under Winfield Scott during the Mexican-American War, then returned to teach at West Point, becoming the Superintendent there, and resigned when Louisiana seceded from the Union.

    Beauregard was one of 8 full generals in the Confederate Army. He recommended stationing strong forces to protect New Orleans, but was overruled by Jefferson Davis; this started friction between Beauregard and Davis that would only get worse as years progressed. Beauregard's first assignment from the Confederate Government was command of the forces in Charleston, South Carolina, where on April 12, 1861 he opened fire on the Union held Fort Sumter, regarded as the start of the American Civil War. He led Confederate forces to victory in the First Battle of Bull Run, and commanded with mixed results until forced to withdraw at the Battle of Shiloh.

    Beauregard successfully defended Charleston from repeated Union attacks 1862 - 1864. In 1864 he was appointed commander of Confederate forces in the West, where he fought without success to halt the advances of superior Union forces under U.S. Grant and William T. Sherman. He surrendered to the Union in April 1865.

    After the war he spoke in favor of civil and voting rights for the recently freed slaves, an opinion not common among high-ranking Confederates.

    Bearegard's military writings include The Principles and Maxims of the Art of War, Report on the Defense of Charleston, and A Commentary on the Campaign and Battle of Manassas. Beauregard and Jefferson Davis published a series of bitter accusations and counter-accusations, blaming each other in retrospect for the defeat of the Confederacy.

    General Beauregard declined offers to take command of the armies of Romania (1866) and Egypt (1869).

    He became involved in promotion of railroads, both as a company director and a consulting engineer. He invented a system of cable-powered street railway cars.

    He served in the government of the State of Louisiana, first as adjutant general, and then less successfully as manager of the Louisiana State Lottery. Though considered personally honest, he failed to reform corruption in the Lottery system.

    P.G.T. Beauregard died in New Orleans on February 20, 1893.

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  • Thomas Stonewall Jackson - Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, Confederate general in the American Civil War (Born January 21, 1824, Died May 10, 1863 after being mortally wounded at the Battle of Chancellorsville in Virginia) attended West Point, and served in the Mexican War before taking a teaching position at the Virginia Military Institute (VMI).

    When war came, Jackson rose to prominence and earned his nickname after the first battle of Bull Run in July 1861, where his brigade was said to "stand like a stone wall" against the Union assault. He was quickly promoted to divisional command.

    In May and June of 1862, he was given an independent command in the Shenandoah Valley. There he soundly thrashed the Union forces in a series of battles, showing great audacity, excellent knowledge and shrewd usage of the terrain, and the ability to inspire his troops to great feats of marching and fighting.

    In mid-June, he and his troops were called to Richmond, Virginia, to help oppose McClellan's advance up the York-James peninsula. They served under Robert E Lee in the series of battles known as the Seven Days'Battles. Jackson's performance in those battles is generally considered to be lackluster, for reasons that are disputed, though a severe lack of sleep after the grueling march from the Valley was probably a large factor.

    Jackson was now a corps commander under Lee. At Second Battle of Bull Run, he helped to administer the Federals another defeat on the same grounds as in 1861. When Lee decided to invade the North, Jackson took Harpers Ferry, then hastened to join the rest of the army at Sharpsburg, where they fought McClellan in the battle of Antietam. The Confederate forces held their position, but the battle had been extremely bloody for both sides, and Lee took the Army of Northern Virginia back across the Potomac River, ending the invasion.

    Jackson's troops held off a ferocious Union assault at Fredericksburg. At Chancellorsville, Jackson's forces flanked the Union army, and in an intense battle deep in the tangled woods drove them back from their lines. Darkness ended the assault, and by bad luck Jackson and his staff were mistaken for a Union cavalry force by Confederate troops and fired upon. Jackson was hit by three bullets; his arm had to be amputated, and he died seven days later of complications from the wound.

    Jackson is considered one of the great characters of the Civil War. He was profoundly religious, a deacon in the Presbyterian Church. He disliked fighting on Sunday, though that didn't stop him from doing so. He loved his wife very much and sent her tender letters. He generally wore old, worn-out clothes rather than a fancy uniform, and often looked more like a moth-eaten private than a corps commander. In command he was extremely secretive about his plans and extremely punctilious about military discipline. The South mourned his death; he was and still is greatly admired there. He is buried at VMI, and memorialized on Georgia's Stone Mountain and in many other places.

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  • William Tecumseh Sherman was an American soldier, businessman, and writer general in the American Civil War, best known for his capture of Atlanta, Georgia, and his March to the Sea (from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia).

    He was born February 8, 1820, in Lancaster, Ohio. He was the older brother of John Sherman, the Senator who sponsored the Sherman Antitrust Act. Sherman's father, Judge Charles Sherman, died when Tecumseh was nine years old. The boy was informally "adopted" by a Lancaster neighbor, attorney Thomas Ewing, who served as a U.S. Senator from Ohio and as U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Ewing secured Sherman's apppointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point, from which he graduated sixth in his class of 1840. He entered the army as a second lieutenant and served through the end of the Mexican American War, during which he was stationed in California.

    He resigned his military commission and became president of a bank in San Francisco. The bank failed in a financial panic in 1857. Sherman accept a job offered to him by two of his Southern army friends, P.G.T. Beauregard and Braxton Bragg, as the first president of Louisiana Military Seminary. He served in that post until the start of the American Civil War, when he resigned and went back north. It is an especially delicious irony that Louisiana Military Seminary later became Louisiana State University. Thus the Yankee general Southerners most love to hate was the first president of what is now one of the most prestigious and beloved Southern universities. Beauregard and Bragg, of course, became Confederate generals during the Civil War. Sherman accepted a commission as a colonel in the U.S. Army and was one of very few Union officers to actually distinguish him+self at the first Battle of Bull Run.

    He was made a brigadier general and put in command of a military department headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky. During his time in Louisville Sherman went through a personal crisis that has been variously described as a "nervous breakdown" or "insanity." Without question he was working too hard, drinking and smoking too much and suffered some kind of collapse which made it necessary for him to go home to Ohio to recuperate. Yet just six months later he was a brilliant and brave major general serving under U. S. Grant at the April 1862 Battle of Shiloh. He suffered two slight wounds during that two-day battle in west Tennessee and had four horses killed from under him.

    Sherman developed close personal ties to Grant during the approximately two years they served together. At one point not long after the Battle of Shiloh, Sherman persuaded Grant, who was being badly treated by his commander, General H. W. Halleck, to not resign from the army. The careers of both officers ascended considerably after that time. They shared in the glory of conquering Vicksburg in July 1863 and at the Battle of Lookout Mountain in Chattanooga. In much later years Sherman said simply, "I took care of Grant when he was drunk, and he took care of me when I was crazy."

    When Lincoln called Grant east in the spring of 1864 to take command of the eastern Army of the Potomac, Sherman succeeded Grand as commander of all troops in the western theatre of the war. His siege and capture of Atlanta, Georgia and subsequent March to the Sea from Atlanta to Savannah in the autumn of 1864 sealed Sherman's position as one of the great Union heroes of the Civil War. When Grant became president in 1869, Sherman became the top general in the U.S. Army and served in that post until his retirement.

    In 1875 Sherman published his two-volume Memoirs, a minor classic, marked by a forceful, lucid style, and the strong opinions for which Sherman became famous.

    Sherman retired from the army in 1884, and lived most of the rest of his life in New York City. He was devoted to the theatre and much in demand as a colorful speaker at dinners and banquets in New York and elsewhere.

    Sherman died in New York in 1891, and is buried in Calvary Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri.

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  • James Longstreet (1821-1904) was one of the foremost generals of the American Civil War, and later enjoyed a successful post-war career working for the government of his former enemies, as a diplomat and adminstrator.

    Longstreet was born in Augusta, Georgia in 1821, but moved to Alabama as a boy and was appointed to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point representing that state. He graduated from West Point in 1842, in time to serve with distinction in the Mexican War and rise to the rank of major. He resigned for the U.S. Army in June of 1861 to cast his lot with the Confederacy in the Civil War.

    Longstreet was already highly regarded as an officer, and he was almost immediately appointed as a brigadier general in the Confederate Army. He fought well at Bull Run, and earned a promotion to major general. When Gen. Robert E. Lee took command of what had become known as the Army of Northern Virginia that summer, Longstreet's career took off. During the Seven Days Campaign, Longstreet had operational command of nearly half the Confederate army.

    As a general, Longstreet showed a clear preference for defensive fighting, preferring to position his troops in strong defensive positions and compel the enemy to attack him. Once the enemy had worn itself down, then and only then would Longstreet contemplate an attack of his own. In fact, troops under his command never lost a defensive position during the war. His record as an offensive tactician was a mixed bag, however, and he often clashed with the highly aggressive Lee on the subject of the proper tactics to employ in battle.

    Ironically, one of his finest hours came in August 1862, when he commanded what had become known as the First Corps at Second Bull Run. Here, he and his counterpart in command of the Second Corps, Lieut. Gen. Thomas J. Jackson switched their normal roles, with Jackson fighting defensively on the Confederate left, and Longstreet delivering a devastating flank attack on the right that crushed a slightly larger Union army. The next month, at the Battle of Antietam, Longstreet held his part of the Confderate line against Union forces twice as numerous. On October 9, a few weeks after Antietam, Longstreet was promoted to lieutenant general.

    He only enhanced his reputation that December, when his First Corps played the decisive role in the Battle of Fredericksburg. There, Longstreet positioned his men behind a stone wall and held off a half-dozen assaults by Union forces. About 10,000 Union soldiers fell; Longstreet's men lost but 500.

    In the winter and early spring of 1863, Longstreet bottled up Union forces in the city of Suffolk, Virginia, a minor operation but one that was very important to Lee's army, still stationed in devastated central Virginia. By conducting a siege of Suffolk, Longstreet enabled Confederate authorities to collect huge amounts of food--food that had been under Union control--and send it to feed Lee's hungry soldiers. However, this operation caused Longstreet and 15,000 men of the First Corps to be absent from the Battle of Chancellorsville in May.

    Longstreet rejoined Lee's army after Chancellorsville and took part in Lee's Gettysburg campaign, where he clashed with Lee about the tactics Lee was using. This campaign marked a fundamental change in the way Longstreet was employed by Lee. In the past, Lee had preferred to use Longstreet in defensive roles, which were his strength, and use the Jackson and the Second Corps to spearhead his attacks. But Jackson had been killed at Chancellorsville, and now Lee wanted Longstreet--his best remaining lieutenant--to fill that role.

    Longstreet was willing and capable of doing so, but he argued with Lee a number of times during the battle of Gettysburg, essentially telling Lee that his tactics were going to lead to defeat. On July 2, the second day of the battle, Longstreet's assault on the Union left nearly succeeded, but on July 3, when Lee ordered Longstreet, against his wishes, to attack the Union center in what became known as "Pickett's Charge", the Confederates lost 7,000 men in an hour. Longstreet was right, and Lee was wrong and immediately admitted as much, but to many of Lee's admirers, the lost battle was Longstreet's fault.

    Lee never blamed anyone but himself for the defeat, and in fact dispatched Longstreet to Georgia that fall in response to a desperate appeal for help from the Confederate Army of Tennessee. That resulted in Longstreet and 14,000 of his First Corps veterans taking part in the Battle of Chickamauga that September. Longstreet led an attack of his men and some of the Army of Tennessee men that routed the Union Army of the Cumberland and won the greatest Confederate victory ever in the western theatre.

    Alas, Longstreet soon clashed with the bumbling Army of Tennessee commander, Gen. Braxton Bragg, when Bragg failed to capitalize on the victory by finishing off the Union army and recapturing the city of Chattanooga, Tennessee. The government offered Longstreet command of the entire army in Bragg's place, but Longstreet turned it down, citing his unfamiliarity with the army. Bragg not only stayed in command, he sent Longstreet and his men on a disastrous campaign into east Tennessee, where in December, he was defeated in an attempt to recapture the city of Knoxville. After Bragg was driven back into Georgia, Longstreet and his men returned to Lee.

    Longstreet helped save the Confederate army from defeat in his first battle back with Lee's army, the Battle of the Wilderness in May 1864, where he drove back a powerful Union attack column and nearly drove it from the field. But he was wounded in the process, and missed the rest of the 1864 spring campaign, where Lee sorely missed his skill in handling the army. He rejoined Lee during the siege of Petersburg from June 1864-March 1865, commanding the defenses in front of the capital of Richmond. He surrendered with Lee at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865.

    After the war, Longstreet became friends with his old adversary, Lieut. Gen. and future President Ulysses S. Grant, and became the only major Confederate officer to join the postwar Republican party. For this, he lost favor with many Southerners, but nevertheless enjoyed a successful second career. Grant appointed Longstreet as his ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, and later on, he served as commissioner of the United States of America Pacific railroad system.

    Late in life, after bearing criticism of his war record from other Confederates for decades, he refuted most of their arguments in his memoirs entitled From Manassas to Appomattox. He had the good fortune of outliving most of his enemies, and died on January 2, 1904, once again respected as an outstanding general by both friend and foe alike.

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  • James Ewell Brown Stuart James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart was a Confederate cavalry commander during the American Civil War.

    Born in Virginia and a graduate of West Point (class of 1854), Stuart was already a first lieutenant in the United States Army 1st Cavalry and a veteran of Indian fighting on the plains and of Bleeding Kansas when, he carried orders for Robert E. Lee to proceed to Harpers Ferry to crush John Brown's raid. Stuart volunteered to be Lee's aide-de-camp, and read the ultimatum to Brown before the final assault. Promoted to captain on April 22, 1861, Stuart resigned on May 14, 1861 to join the Confederate States Army.

    His later appointments included:

    • captain of cavalry, CSA (May 24, 1861)
    • colonel, 1st Virginia Cavalry (July 16, 1861)
    • brigadier general, CSA (September 24, 1861)
    • major general, CSA (July 25, 1862)

    His commands in the Army of Northern Virginia included:

    • Cavalry Brigade (October 22, 1861 - July 28, 1862)
    • Cavalry Division (July 28, 1862 - September 9, 1863)
    • temporarily Jackson's 2nd Corps (May 3-6, 1863)
    • Cavalry Corps (September 9, 1863 - May 11, 1864).
    • After early service in the Shenandoah Valley, Stuart led his regiment in the First Bull Run and participated in the pursuit of the routed Federals. He then directed the army's outposts until given command of the cavalry brigade.

    He led the cavalry in the Army of Northern Virginia at:

    Stuart was also a raider. Twice he slipped around McClellan's army, once in the Peninsula Campaign and once after the battle of Antietam. While these exploits were not militarily significant, they improved Southern morale. During the Second Bull Run Campaign, he lost his signature plumed hat and cloak to pursuing Federals, but in a later raid, managed to overrun Union army commander John Pope's headquarters and not only captured his full uniform but also intercepted orders that provided Lee with much valuable intelligence. At the end of 1862, Stuart led a raid north of the Rappahannock River, inflicting some 230 casualties while losing only 27 of his own men.

    The following May at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Stuart was appointed by Lee to take command of the 2nd Army Corps for a few days after Stonewall Jackson had been wounded. Returning to the cavalry, he commanded the Southern horsemen at Brandy Station, the largest cavalry engagement on the American continent, on June 9, 1863. Although the battle was a draw, the Confederates did hold the field. However, the fight represented the rise of the Union cavalry and foreshadowed the decline of the formerly invincible Southern mounted arm. During the Gettysburg Campaign, Stuart, acting under ambiguous orders, again circled the Union army, but in the process deprived Lee of his eyes and ears while in enemy territory. Arriving late on the second day of the battle, Stuart failed the next day to get into the enemy's rear flank, being defeated by Generals Gregg and Custer.

    During Grant's drive on Richmond in the spring of 1864, Stuart halted Sheridan's cavalry at Yellow Tavern on the outskirts of Richmond on May 11. In the fight he was mortally wounded and died the next day in the rebel capital. He is buried in Hollywood Cemetery there.

    Like his intimate friend, Stonewall Jackson, General Stuart was a legendary figure, ranking as one of the greatest cavalry commanders of all time. Stuart was a son-in-law of Brigadier General Philip St George Cooke of the Federal service; his wife's brother was Brigadier General John Rogers Cooke of the Confederacy.



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